IEEE 2005 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
Illinois Institute of Technology

08 September 2005 14:20

Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Designed for Slow, Start/Stop
Low-Gear Driving in Heavy Traffic Conditions in Manila

for details, click on links below
IEEE Presentation
Other Information


This Hybrid-Electric Vehicle is designed to improve the overall
thermal efficiencies of passenger utility vehicles that operate under
heavy traffic conditions in the streets of Manila and other
megacities, like New York City, Bankok, and the like.

The system is scalable from a small "passenger tricycle" to
a passenger bus or jeepney and may be considered as a
retrofit system to existing vehicles.

It is environmentally friendly and is energy-efficient.
It is a candidate technology for emerging economies and
for megacities.

Abridged Presentation

(click on the bullets - details will be shown in another window)
    We are asking three questions to compare our Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with those of other companies. These are meant for an "apples-to-apples" comparison.

              - What Sets Us Apart?

              - How do the Overall System Design Compare?

              - Where are our Strong Points?

    The answers that we are suggesting are taken from information found on the internet, and are

              "THEIRS", "OURS", or BOTH OF US.

  1. Is the HEV brand-specific? THEIRS.

    What distinguishes us from ALL THE REST is that our home-grown Hybrid-Electric System can be used for locally assembled vehicles and also a "retrofit" for already existing locally-built ones.

    It can also be installed in almost any manufacturer's vehicle brand, with modifications on some of its mechanical drive components. Their HEVs are designed for road conditions in developed countries.

    What seems to be their best, the Prius, will run out of battery charge if it is operated in heavy traffic conditions like Manila's. They do not manufacture HEVs that are specifically designed for developing countries.

    In contrast, OURS is intended for the market that they are NOT LOOKING AT!!!

  2. Designed for fast good roads. THEIRS.

  3. Fast acceleration. THEIRS.

    Most roads in the Philippines and some other countries do not support fast speed and fast acceleration.

    Our design does not include fast acceleration as a precondition.

  4. First cost is relatively expensive. THEIRS.

    Hybrids in the market today are mostly for personal use.

    OURS is designed for vehicles that transport many passengers that ride and get off along the way - very much like the US "local" trains.

  5. High cost per passenger capacity. THEIRS.

    For example, a 5-passenger Prius sells in the Philippines for about US$36,000.

    A 25-passenger jeepney about US$5,500, or a factor of about 7.

    On a per passenger basis, investment on the Prius US$7,200 per passenger seat, and Jeepney costs US$220 per passenger seat, or a factor of 33.

    This is a significant factor for functionality in a developing economy.

  6. High efficiency optimized parts. THEIRS.

    We use components that are available in the local market, such as general-purpose three-phase motors, surplus engines, etc., and not the high-efficiency optimized permanent-magnet motors and top-of-the-line optimized engines.

    This is because we "make do" with available components.

    If the optimized components are available and are cost-effective for our use, we would also use them.

  7. High power. THEIRS.

    High power because it is designed to accelerate and blend with the speed of the fast vehicles on the highway, as required by the road conditions.

    Because of road conditions such as these, the vehicles are provided with grossly over-powered engines for start/stop heavy traffic conditions.

    In our honest opinion, big engines SIMPLY WASTE AND WASTE TOO MUCH GAS!!!

  8. Improved efficiency. BOTH OF US.

    There will be an improvement in efficiency for both systems, when compared with their non-hybrid counterparts.

    OURS will post a lower improvement than those others. The primary reason is that our do not use optimized components.

    Moreover, we operate at lower voltages in order to assure the safety of our passengers during the initial stages of the development of our technology.

  9. Light-weight per horsepower. THEIRS.

    Since we are using lower voltages and we do not use optimized components, our vehicles will be heavier than those others.

    This additional weight carries penalties in efficiency and also in acceleration.

    This small penalty in efficiency will be remedied later, when we shift to higher voltages.

  10. Recover energy driving downhill. BOTH OF US.

    Every time drivers of hybrids step on the brakes, they engage the generator to charge the batteries from the energy of motion of the vehicle.

    When going downhill, we prevent the vehicle from over-speeding by stepping on the brakes. When the generator is attached to the shaft at this point, it will start turning from the downhill energy of motion and will act like the friction brakes of conventional vehicles.

    While it is turning the generator will store the 'change in potential energy' (as engineers call it) it in batteries to be used later on.

    This recovered energy will then be used when the vehicle starts climbing back uphill.

    You will see that the vehicle will simply supply fuel to the extent of the losses due to friction, etc.

  11. Recover energy through brakes. BOTH OF US.

    Hybrids also recover some of the kinetic energy of motion when the driver steps on the brakes to decelerate.

    This action also engages the generator so that its turning with the drive-shaft generates electricity that it stores in batteries to be used later on.

  12. Sophisticated manufacturing plant. THEIRS.

    Our systems could be assembled by local builders of jeepneys and buses.

    They are accustomed to making do with surplus components to assemble these vehicles, or undertake retrofit projects, such as changing the engines of current vehicles.

  13. Suitable for roads of developed countries. THEIRS.

    The only way that OURS could compete would be in roads of Manhattan in New York City.

    Or in applications like "LOCAL" bus services, delivery vans of the United States Postal System, UPS, FedEx, etc.

  14. Very high efficiency. THEIRS.

    Since these hybrids use optimized components, the resulting vehicle will be operating at higher efficiencies than could be attained by our system.

    When we shift to higher voltages, we will come closer to their efficiencies, and maybe surpass them in roads for which where we designed our system, like heavy traffic conditions.

  15. Winding roads. BOTH OF US.

    Winding roads offer opportunities for stepping on the brakes many times along the way, allowing recovery of energy from motion and also from change in altitude.

    We will have an advantage, when these winding roads are slow and cover a relatively long distance.


  16. Local components. OURS.

    We "MAKE-DO" with whatever there is in the market, such as a 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor made in China, a 90-ampere 12-volt automotive alternator, or locally designed and built transformers and inductors.

    In any case, the DESIGN IS OURS, and we could always make adjustments in the other parts of OUR system.

    Optimized components are expensive and may not be available, especially, early on in the project.

    With some funding, we could import some of these components and build a more efficient system.

    Conversely, we could also be sponsored by a large automotive company and build our system in their well-equipped engineering facilities, factories and warehouses.

  17. Consistent heavy traffic conditions and
    constant start/stop, say 90% of the daily trip. OURS.

    Our system runs its electric motor when the engine load is expected to be low. In heavy traffic conditions, the engine would much lower efficiency.

    For this reason, our electric motor is expected to run much longer than a Prius' would in road conditions for which it is designed.

    When put under our driving conditions, a Prius' battery would be drained very early on, and it would have to operate LIKE a conventional vehicle, NOT as a hybrid.

    One might say, then increase the capacity of the Prius battery. Yes, it would partly solve this problem but it would still have a much bigger engine.

    Then put in a smaller engine. Yes, but our computer program, our large passenger capacity, and all our other features will also have to be installed in the Prius.

    Then it would not be a Prius machine but OUR MACHINE.

  18. For passenger utility vehicles. OURS.

    It is designed to perform the function of transporting many people and goods from one place to another.

    It will not have the amenities of a vehicle designed for developed countries, although it could also be built with these amenities in the future.

  19. For retrofit applications. OURS.

    Our home-grown Hybrid-Electric System is for locally assembled vehicles and also a "retrofit" for already existing locally-built ones.

    For all practical purposes, it would be just another box that the builders would bolt on to the chassis, in addition to making additions to the mechanical drive system.

    There will be a certain level of mechanical engineering work, but this will be "traditional" technology that are within the competence of old engineering graduates of, say, 1956 (year I graduated from mechanical engineering).

  20. General-purpose use. OURS.

    Our Hybrid-Electric System could be marketed or licensed as such. We do NOT intend to manufacture vehicles, but our system can be used by any manufacturer.

    For example, Ford Motor Corporation could use our system, so could Mitsubishi, or General Motors Corporation, or other manufacturers.

    We are protected by the UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE!

  21. Plug-in charge batteries from utility. OURS.

    If the utility sells electricity at a cost lower than our production cost, then we plug our hybrid into the convenience outlet and charge our batteries.

  22. Sell feedback power to utility. OURS.

    On the other hand, we could sell electricity to the utility if the production cost of our hybrid is lower than the utility's selling price.

    The PURPA provides that we sell to the UTILITY AT ITS AVOIDED COST, while we buy from the utility at its selling rate.

  23. Spur cottage industries and revive local passenger vehicle shops. OURS.

    Cottage industries could develop around the HEV.

    The local builders and shops could be revived, or re-established.

    The development of skills of electricians could be facilitated.

    Many more economic benefits are expected to be derived.

  24. Suitable for roads of emerging economies. OURS.

    OURS is designed for these roads.